Material and Energy Balances
Susan M. Williams
212 Burt Hall
Travis Wentworth, Twentworth11@ku.edu, 200 Burt Hall, Hours: Tues 9-11
Anahita Khanlari, email@example.com, 204 Burt Hall: Thurs 11- 1
Lecture: 3:00 - 3:50 M,W,F, 2 Eaton
Calculation Laboratory: 4:00-5:45 M, 2 Eaton
Felder, R.M. and Rousseau, R.W., 2005. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3rd Ed. (2005 edition), John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 675 pp.
Engineering paper for assignments
Flowsheet Template (Timely Flowplanner T-60 or similar)
Blackboard: I will use Blackboard Course Management System to post course documents, lecture notes, assignments, and other course material. If you are enrolled in this class you will have access to the CPE 211 Blackboard site.
Office Hours: Tentative office hours are Friday from 9-11 AM. If there are conflicts with a majority of the people in the class we can change the times. Also, I have an open door policy for questions and help. You may stop by my office at any time and if I am free I will be happy to help. If you want to set up an appointment, please feel free to email or call and we can schedule a time to meet. You may call me at home, if needed, before 8:00 P.M. or in the case of an emergency.
Course Description: The application of the laws of chemistry, physics, and mathematics to the solution of material and energy balance problems occurring in the process industries. You will get an idea for the types of problems that are encountered by chemical engineers working with individual chemical units and complete processes. More importantly, you will develop a methodology or approach to solving engineering process-related problems including: 1) how to break-down a process into components; 2) establish a relationship between known and unknown variables; 3) how to solve for the unknown variables using a combination of experimentation, empiricism, and natural laws; and 4) finally, how to put all of the information together to obtain the desired solution to the problem. This class will help you develop a way of thinking that will be necessary for further development and problem solving in future engineering classes and your career.
Attendance: Attendance at the scheduled classes is strongly
encouraged. There will be occasional in-class problems and assignments that are
to be completed during class time. In-class work and assignments missed due to
unexcused absences will negatively affect your grade. You are responsible for
all information transmitted in class and for homework assignments due (when
they are due) regardless of your attendance.
Attendance at scheduled exams is mandatory. Absence from an exam because of illness or injury will be excused only if a physician confirms in writing that you were unable to attend because of the illness or injury. Absence from an exam may be excused for other pressing reasons, but only if the instructor is notified before the exam and agrees to the absence. In extreme emergencies, a student may be excused from an exam after the fact but only if the instructor is contacted promptly after the exam.
Respectful Classroom Environment: Keep noise and distractions to a minimum out of respect for your classmates. This is really just a common sense issue. You are expected to silence cell phones and pagers, not talk on cell phones during class, and arrive to class on time. Conversations with classmates should not be disruptive to others.
Examinations: Three exams and a final will be given in this course. The final exam is scheduled for Thursday, December 13 from 1:30-4:00 P.M. The material to be covered on the exams will be specified before each exam and will be announced at least one week before the examination date. The examinations will take place on Mondays during the calculation laboratory sessions. More information about the exams will be discussed as they approach.
Homework: An important component of this course is the work to
be completed outside of the class meetings. That work includes watching online
tutorials, reading, and homework assignments. Note that a significant component
of the grade for this course is directly dependent on work to be accomplished
outside of the scheduled classes. Nearly every class has a reading assignment
or online tutorial that must be
completed before the start of class. Every student is expected to prepare
for each class by reading the assignments, watching the tutorials, and
completing the homework. Reading is more than a casual skimming of the
material; it is making a serious effort to learn the material assigned.
Homework will be conducted using Sapling Learning software. Sapling is a required supplemental course material which provides interactive homework, problem-solving help, and effective instruction for the course. All homework solutions will be submitted online through the software. More information on how to get access to Sapling is provided at the end of the syllabus. In addition, for some assignments I may ask that you turn in a hard copy of your work. Late homework will not be accepted unless there is an illness or other excused absence. The following format must be used on hard copies to be turned in.
Homework Formats and Regulations
1. Engineering paper must be used (except for software printouts).
a. Write on the front side only. The back side will not be graded.
b. Write your name, HW #, and date on page 1. Initial and number all other pages.
2. Staple multiple pages together (no paperclips or folded corners).
3. All of the following must be included in every problem:
a. Flow chart and given values (use to start every problem).
b. List all assumptions, if any, at the beginning.
c. Write what you are trying to find at the beginning, so that the purpose of the problem is clear. For example, "Find: yA."
d. Include units throughout, especially in your final answer.
e. Report a reasonable number of significant figures in your answer.
f. Box your answers.
4. Group work is strongly encouraged, unless specified otherwise. However, each student is expected to submit his or her own work unless the assignment has been designated as a group exercise. If you have worked with others, you must identify the names of the peers you have worked with.
5. Write and draw legibly.
Grading: The grades for the course will be calculated based on the following:
Three Exams (100 points each)
Homework and lab assignments
Quizzes and in class problems
A final grade of 90% or higher guarantees an A, 80% or higher guarantees at least a B, 70% or higher guarantees at least a C, 60% or higher guarantees at least a D. Besides these lower limits, final letter grades may be based on a curved distribution. Since the homework, in class problems, lab assignments and projects may be done with other individuals in the class, it is important to assess the ability of the individuals understanding of the material. Therefore, in order for a student to pass the course, the composite score of their individual tests (3 exams and final exam) must be 60% or higher. This means that regardless of total points earned, if a student has an average of less than 60% on the composite of the exams, the student will not pass the course.
Religious Holidays: Contact me at least one class period in advance if you need to miss a class or exam in observance of a religious holiday. Arrangements will be made for the missed work to be completed.
Students with Disabilities: Any student in the course who has a disabilities which prevents him or her from fully demonstrating his or her ability should contact me personally as soon as possible so we can discuss accommodations necessary to ensure full participation and facilitate the educational opportunity. You can request a reasonable accommodation through the following link for AAAC: http://www.disability.ku.edu/~disability/faculty/syllabus-statement.shtml, or you can call: 785-864-4064. The email Address for AAAC is firstname.lastname@example.org.
Academic Misconduct: I do not expect academic misconduct to occur in this class. But, regulations require that I inform you of the University Student Handbook Definition and my expectations. The following two paragraphs are taken from www.studenthandbook.ku.edu.
2.6.1 Academic misconduct by a student shall include, but not be limited to, disruption of classes; threatening an instructor or fellow student in an academic setting; giving or receiving of unauthorized aid on examinations or in the preparation of notebooks, themes, reports or other assignments; knowingly misrepresenting the source of any academic work; unauthorized changing of grades; unauthorized use of University approvals or forging of signatures; falsification of research results; plagiarizing of another's work; violation of regulations or ethical codes for the treatment of human and animal subjects; or otherwise acting dishonestly in research.
2.6.2 After consultation with the department chairperson, an instructor may, with due notice to the student, treat as unsatisfactory (1) any student work that is a product of academic misconduct, or (2) a student's performance for a course as unsatisfactory when there are severe or repeated instances of academic misconduct as defined in Section 2.6.1. If an instructor deems other sanctions for academic misconduct by a student to be advisable, or if a student wishes to protest a grade based upon work judged by an instructor to be a product of academic misconduct, or if a faculty member is charged with academic misconduct in connection with the assignment of a grade or otherwise, the case shall be reported to the Dean of the College or School in which the course is offered and processed in accord with applicable procedures.
For this class:
Academic misconduct will at minimum be penalized by the assignment of a zero grade for the examination or assignment involved and can result in the failure of the student of the course with a final grade of "F" being assigned. All cases of academic misconduct will be reported to the Chair of the Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department and the Dean of the School of Engineering.
Sept 3 - No Classes Labor Day Holiday
Oct 8 - No Class Fall Break
Nov 23 - 26 - No Classes Thanksgiving Holiday
Dec 7 - No Classes Stop Day
Dec 13 - Final Exam
Instruction for getting access to Sapling:
If you have Facebook account, you can use it to
quickly create a SaplingLearning account. Click "create
account" located under the username box, then click "Login with
Facebook". The form will auto-fill with
information from your Facebook account (you may need to log into Facebook in
the popup window first). Choose a password and timezone,
accept the site policy agreement, and click "Create my new account".
You can then skip to step 3.
Otherwise, click "create account" located under the username box. Supply the requested information and click "Create my new account". Check your email (and spam filter) for a message from Sapling Learning and click on the link provided in that email.
Students will become familiar with engineering units.
Use a diverse set of engineering units
Learn to convert among these units
Students will learn to plot, interpret and determine physical property data.
Be introduced to molecular weight
Be introduced to vapor pressure
Be introduced to density
Be introduced to enthalpy and internal energy
Be introduced to heat of formation
Be introduced to heat of combustion
Be introduced to heat of reaction
Be introduced to heat of mixing
Develop xy graphs by hand including proper labeling
Develop xy graphs by software
Determine values for properties from physical property tables
Determine values for properties from descriptive equations
Students will understand the concept of control volume (system boundary).
Understand that a control volume is an aid to solving complex problems.
Understand that a control volume is an engineering artifice used to focus
Understand that it can be drawn around any subset of an engineering process
Understand that the important terms are those that cross the boundary and those inside the boundary
Students will understand the language of flowsheets.
Be exposed to the semi-industrial standard symbology
Recognize the likeness of the symbology to the actual equipment
Learn the proper flowsheet organization
Students will learn conservation of mass.
Learn the general material balance equation
Learn that the control volume sets the context of the general material balance
Learn the significance of the accumulation term
Learn the significance of the input term
Learn the significance of the output term
Learn the significance of the generation term
Learn the significance of the consumption term
Formulate reaction specifics as consumption or generation
Students will learn conservation of energy.
Learn the simplified first law focusing only on internal energy, enthalpy, heat and work
Recognize that there is only one energy balance per control volume
Learn the significance of the accumulation term
Learn the significance of input terms due to flow
Learn the significance of the output terms due to flow
Learn the significance of the input terms of heat and work
Learn that for conventional chemical engineering situations there are no generation or consumption terms
Learn the convention of heat and work added to the control volume are positive.
Learn the alternative convention that work added to the control volume is negative.
Learn that heat is energy flow due to a temperature difference
Learn that enthalpy values are relative to a basis
Learn that internal energy values are relative to a basis
Learn that there are enthalpy/internal energy changes due to a phase change
Learn that there are enthalpy/internal energy changes due to chemical reactions
Learn that there are enthalpy/internal energy changes due to mixing
Students will develop good organizational and documentation skills.
Organize their work to professional standards
Practice developing organized solutions with work flowing sequentially down the page
Write all units and unit conversions on the solution
Include all units in the solution
Use engineering paper for all hand calculations
Use appropriate graph paper for all hand generated plots
Label axes and figures
Document the evolving solution stating all assumptions, units and nomenclature
Document all observations
Document all conclusions
Students will develop good problem solving skills.
Recognize that problem solving involves the six steps of engage, define, explore, plan, do and evaluate.
Recognize that these six steps are iterative, not sequential.
Accept and practice this strategy
Recognize that this skill is required for complex problems
Translate a problem statement or question into a definition
Write the definition as part of the problem solution
Estimate the solution form and values as part of the definition
Identify what is known and what needs to be known
Gather information to prepare the foundation for the solution
Plan efficiently the solution strategy prior to beginning
Will not begin the execution (do step) until appropriate definition, exploration and planning have been completed.
Accept that the exploration and plan will change
Evaluate the evolving solution
Evaluate their plan to ensure that effort is only being placed on the defined problem.
Evaluate their solution in the context of the definition
Students will develop effective control volume usage.
Identify all control volumes on a flowsheet
Select effective control volumes based on the problem definition
Identify all inputs due to material flow
Identify all output due to material flow
Identify all inputs due to heat
Identify all inputs due to work
Students will develop effective material balance solution methods
Draw a flowsheet of every problem
Label all equipment
Number all streams
Calculate total number of equations required
Identify and document all control volumes
Simplify the general material balance equation for the problem
Write material balance equations
Write definition equations
Write specification equations
Simplify the problem, if necessary
Solve the problem for all unknowns
Document the significant results with respect to the definition
Refrain from algebraically combining material balances as part of the set up
Students will develop effective energy balance solution methods.
Write the energy balance for the identified control volumes
Select an appropriate basis for enthalpy and internal energy
Select heats of formation for an enthalpy basis where appropriate
Calculate appropriate values for enthalpy and internal energy, as needed
Use a consistent convention for heat
Use a consistent convention for work
Students will develop the ability to recognize and develop specifications
Identify the number of specifications required with multiple streams leaving a control volume
Use mole fraction and mole percent specifications
Use weight fraction and weight percent specifications
Use vapor pressure and partial pressure of a single condensable component to tie two streams
Use percentage recovery specifications
Students will use appropriate computational tools.
Practice using unprogrammed calculators
Practice using self-developed computer code
Practice using sequential modular spreadsheet solution approaches
Practice using equation oriented spreadsheet solution approaches
Be introduced to process simulation solution approaches
Select the appropriate tool for the problem definition