Resources for inclusive teaching
As teachers and mentors, we have an important role to play in creating a supportive and inclusive learning climate for all students.
Research shows that many common educational and social practices reinforce inequities and work against the success of students from underrepresented groups. Thus, promoting success for all learners requires us to reflect on our own practices and engage in deliberate, intentional efforts to model and promote an equitable teaching and learning environment.
Yet embracing diversity in our teaching is not just important for students from underrepresented groups, or only relevant for courses that focus on diversity itself. All university students should learn about the diverse world they live in, and all instructors should draw upon diversity to enrich learning for everyone.
The resources on this page are intended to help instructors adopt teaching methods and strategies that enhance inclusivity and respect for diversity in their classes. It is divided into three main sections – Adopting inclusive teaching methods, Creating an inclusive climate, and Leading difficult discussions. You will find many subsections and links within each of those areas. Also see a separate page of tips and syllabus material compiled by Meagan Patterson, an associate professor of educational psychology and a faculty fellow at CTE.
Strategies such as cooperative small group learning, problem-based learning and increased course structure (e.g., guided-reading questions, preparatory homework, and in-class activities) have proved especially helpful to minority students and first-generation students. These methods are at the core of current course redesign efforts to include more student-centered teaching. Similarly, peer-led supplemental discussions or workshops enhance learning for all, with especially significant benefits for minority or underrepresented student groups.
These approaches shrink large classes to smaller groups in the same space, reduce academic isolation and encourage a sense of community and social support. They also enhance critical thinking, improve student preparation and accountability, and transform students into active learners. They also employ universal design, a strategy that increases access and support for particular groups of students but that benefits all learners.
Several courses at KU have employed these strategies, and the instructors explain their approaches and their results in course portfolios on the CTE website:Active, problem-based and collaborative learning
- Transitioning from Lecture to Group Problem-Solving Activities
- Enhancing Student Learning in Math Classes
- Invigorating Class Discussions
- The Hybrid Course Experience
- Using Peer-Led Supplemental Discussions to Enhance Student Learning
- Enhancing Student Learning in Math Classes
- Emphasizing the real-world applications of course material.
- Open-ended problems and assignments that have many “correct” answers; questions that require consensus of group or contributions of everyone in a group to address.
- Increasing transparency in courses, such as the use of rubrics for grading. Rubrics improve grading efficiency and consistency, and they also demystify what it takes to succeed on an assignment. Students from underrepresented groups who do not have access to insider academic knowledge can particularly benefit from additional clarity and transparency.
- Continually assessing student outcomes. Use formal (e.g., student performance, student feedback) and informal (e.g., in-class engagement, participation) evidence to guide your teaching. Are the strategies that you are using promoting broad student achievement of the skills and concepts you hope they will take away from your course? Are your methods engaging students from a wide range of backgrounds? When student outcomes fall short of your expectations or wishes, look for new interventions to address those challenges.
- Born, W.L,, Revell, W., & Pinto, L.H. (2002). Improving Biology Performance with Workshop Groups. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11(4).
- Course Redesign at KU
- Eddy, S.L., & Hogan, K.A. (2014). Getting Under the Hood: How and for Whom Does Increasing Course Structure Work? CBE—Life Sciences Education, 13, 453–468.
- Freeman S, Eddy SL, McDonough M, Smith MK, Okoroafor N, Jordt H, Wenderoth MP (2014). Active learning increases student performance across the STEM disciplines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 111, 8410–8415.
- Rubrics from CTE.
- Scale-Up or Studio Physics model
- Universal Design
- Look for ways to increase student exposure to the diversity of human experience. Choose content and examples that address and model diversity, regardless of the subject. Although issues of diversity may at first glance seem more relevant to some disciplines than others, scholars in any discipline can discuss the way that different frames of reference and cultural assumptions affect the accumulation of knowledge.
- Include issues of diversity as part of the course learning outcomes. Use images of people that represent various ethnicities, races, and genders, and use a broad range of analogies and examples. Make your classroom inspiring for underrepresented students. Discussions of the contributions of diverse scholars and providing role models representing a range of cultures, races, genders, or sexual identities conveys that everyone can be successful.
- Create diverse groups or learning teams. When using instructor-formed groups or learning teams, avoid (when possible) creating groups that either isolate underrepresented students or create homogenous groups of students. Students who feel isolated within their team may lose the benefits of collaborative learning, and may have an amplified feeling of marginalization at the university. Provide guidelines for group interactions, check on group functioning through peer feedback, and intervene to shift or structure groups as needed.
- Reduce stereotype threat. This term was coined by Steele and Aronson (1995) to refer to situations in which the performance of negatively stereotyped groups suffers when that stereotype is activated or emphasized. Strategies such as reframing a task with different language, deemphasizing the salience of the stereotyped group membership, and providing role models can help to counteract stereotype threat.
- Include diversity and disabilities statements in your syllabus. Such statements communicate a commitment to diversity and inclusion from the beginning of the semester. They also provide an opportunity to set ground rules or a code of conduct for respectful and appropriate behavior.
- Reflect on Your Own Background and Experiences. Consider how your own background and cultural influences might affect your how you have designed your course. Does the material provide an accurate representation of various perspectives? The Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at the University of Michigan provides reflective strategies for faculty to examine the impact of social identity on teaching.
- Committing to Equity and Inclusive Excellence: A Campus Guide for Self-Study and Planning, from the Association of American Colleges and Universities
- Creating Inclusive College Classrooms, from the Center for Research on Teaching and Learning at the University of Michigan
- How to Write and Report About People With Disabilities, from the Research and Training Center on Independent Living
- Reducing Stereotype Threat
- Inclusivity in the Classroom, from the Center for Teaching at Vanderbilt
- Incorporating Diversity, from the Center for Teaching Excellence at Cornell
- Rocca, Kella A. (2010). Student participation in the college classroom: an extended multidisciplinary literature review. Communication Education 59:2 (April): 185-213
- Tips for Making Class Welcoming for Trans and Gender-variant Students
Instructors can create a positive climate for intellectual discourse about diversity by setting guidelines for class participation that anticipate difficult discussions, and managing contentious interactions when they arise. Here are a few suggestions.
- Set Guidelines. Provide students with a set of ground rules for class participation, or engage your students in designing them with you. Ground rules about civil behavior, acceptable evidence, and appropriate responses to offensive statements can make your expectations for civil, meaningful discourse clear from the beginning, and facilitate an atmosphere of mutual respect. Encourage all students to participate by assigning roles, or providing multiple avenues for participation (e.g., through writing or discussion).
- Manage Contentious Interactions. When an offensive remark is made, Lee Warren, of the Derek Bok Center at Harvard University encourages us “1) to manage ourselves so as to make them useful, and 2) to find the teaching opportunities to help students learn in and from the moment.” Try to collect yourself and set aside your own personal reactions. Do not allow personal attacks, or avoid addressing a hot moment altogether. Instead, help students step back and think about the issue productively, such as by making it a topic of general discussion or a writing exercise. For more detailed recommendations and specific examples, see Warren’s excellent article on Managing Hot Moments in the Classroom.
- Treat students as individuals, not as representatives of or “experts” for their racial or cultural or other social identity group. Allow students to draw on their own lives and experiences when appropriate.
- 10 Ways to Talk to Students About Sensitive Issues in the News, from the New York Times Learning Network.
- America by the Numbers. In this PBS series, Maria Hinojosa looks at the effects of changing demographics on communities and people around the United States. Includes open and frank discussions about race, ethnicity, and related issues.
- Global learning and making excellence inclusive
- Navigating Courageous Conversations.A video from Lehigh Universitiy that includes vignettes of students acting out insensitive and uncomfortable scenarios about race, ethnicity, religion, and gender.
- Speak Up. A video series related to the Teaching Tolerance program. It offers video clips of 15 to 20 seconds intended to generate discussion about hurtful comments about women, minorities, Mexicans, gays and lesbians, and people with disabilities. The videos, which have an accompanying pocket guide and a handbook are aimed at high school teachers but could easily fit into a college classroom.
- Teaching Matters. An issue of CTE's newsletter devoted to inclusive teaching.
- Teaching Tolerance. A resource from the Southern Poverty Law Center, including a magazine and website. Recent articles, which often includes teacher activity guides, include “Hate in the Hallways,” “An Educator’s Guide to the Immigration Debate,” “Confronting White Privilege,” “Straight Talk about the N-Word,” “Debunking Stereotypes about Muslims and Islam,” and “Sex? Sexual Orientation? Gender Identity? Gender Expression?”
A final note: This is hardly a comprehensive list of materials about inclusive teaching. We welcome your suggestions, and your recommendations for improving this page.