C&PE 211
Material and Energy Balances
Fall 2009
Instructor: 
Susan
M. Williams 212
Burt Hall 8642919 (office) 3314633
(home) 
TA: 
Andrew Duncan 200 Burt Hall 
Class
Times: 
Lecture:
3:00 3:50 M,W,F, 2 Eaton Calculation
Laboratory: 4:005:45 M, 2 Eaton 
Textbook: 
Felder, R.M. and Rousseau,
R.W., 2005. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 3^{rd}
Ed. (2005 edition), John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 675 pp. 
Required: 
Engineering paper for assignments 
Recommended: 
Flowsheet Template (Timely Flowplanner T60 or similar) 
Blackboard: I will use Blackboard Course Management System to post course
documents, lecture notes, assignments, and other course material. If you are
enrolled in this class you will have access to the CPE 211 Blackboard site.
Office Hours: Tentative office hours are Monday 9:3010:30 and
Thursday 1:302:30. If there are conflicts with a majority of the people in the
class we can change the times. Also, I have an open door policy
for questions and help. You may stop by my office at any time and if I am free
I will be happy to help. If you want to set up an appointment, please feel free
to email or call me and we can schedule a time to
meet. You may call me at home, if needed, before 8:00 P.M. or in the case of an
emergency.
Course Description: The application of the laws of chemistry, physics, and
mathematics to the solution of material and energy balance problems occurring
in the process industries. You will get an idea for the types of problems that
are encountered by chemical engineers working with individual chemical units
and complete processes. More importantly, you will develop a methodology or
approach to solving engineering processrelated problems including: 1) how to
breakdown a process into components; 2) establish a relationship between known
and unknown variables; 3) how to solve for the unknown variables using a
combination of experimentation, empiricism, and natural laws; and 4) finally,
how to put all of the information together to obtain the desired solution to
the problem. This class will help you develop a way of thinking that will be
necessary for further development and problem solving in future engineering
classes and your career.
Attendance: Attendance at the scheduled classes is strongly
encouraged. There will be occasional inclass problems and assignments that are
to be completed during class time. Inclass work and assignments missed due to unexcused
absences will negatively affect your grade. You are responsible for all
information transmitted in class and for homework assignments due (when they
are due) regardless of your attendance.
Attendance at scheduled exams is mandatory. Absence from an exam because of
illness or injury will be excused only if a physician confirms in writing that
you were unable to attend because of the illness or injury. Absence from an
exam may be excused for other pressing reasons, but only if the instructor is notified
before the exam and agrees to the
absence. In extreme emergencies, a student may be excused from an exam after
the fact but only if the instructor is contacted promptly after the exam.
Respectful Classroom
Environment: Keep noise and
distractions to a minimum out of respect for your classmates. This is really
just a common sense issue. You are expected to silence cell phones and pagers,
not talk on cell phones during class, and arrive to class on time.
Conversations with classmates should not be disruptive to others.
Examinations: Three exams and a final will be given in this course. The
final exam is scheduled for Wednesday, December 16 from 1:304:00 P.M. The
material to be covered on the exams will be specified before each exam and will
be announced at least one week before the examination date. The examinations
will take place on Mondays during the class and calculation laboratory
sessions. More information about the exams will be discussed as they approach.
Homework: An important component of this course is the work to
be completed outside of the class meetings. That work includes reading and
homework assignments. Note that a significant component of the grade for this
course is directly dependent on work to be accomplished outside of the scheduled
classes.
Nearly every class has a reading assignment. The majority of the reading is in
the textbook, but some material may be handed out in class. Occasionally some
material from sources on the World Wide Web or in the University Library will
also be assigned. Every student is expected to prepare for each class by
reading the assignments and completing the homework. Reading the assignments is
more than a casual skimming of the material; it is making a serious effort to
learn the material assigned.
Homework problems will be assigned and are due at the beginning of the class on the due date. Late homework will
not be accepted unless there is an illness or other excused absence. The
following format must be used.
Homework
Formats and Regulations
1.
Engineering paper
must be used (except for software printouts).
a.
Write on the
front side only. The back side will not be graded.
b.
Write your name,
HW #, and date on page 1. Initial and number all other pages.
2.
Staple multiple
pages together (no paperclips or folded corners).
3.
All of the
following must be included in every problem:
a.
Flow chart and
given values (use to start every problem).
b.
List all assumptions,
if any, at the beginning.
c.
Write what you
are trying to find at the beginning, so that the purpose of the problem is
clear. For example, "Find: y_{A}."
d.
Include units
throughout, especially in your final answer.
e.
Report a
reasonable number of significant figures in your answer.
f.
Box your answers.
4.
Group work is
strongly encouraged, unless specified otherwise. However, each student is
expected to submit his or her own work unless the assignment has been designated
as a group exercise. If you have worked with others, you must identify the
names of the peers you have worked with.
5.
Write and draw
legibly.
Grading: The grades for the course will be calculated based on
the following:
Three Exams (100 points
each) 
300 
Final Exam 
200 
Homework and lab
assignments 
100 
Project(s) 
50 
Quiz 
50 
In class Problems 
25 
A final grade of 90% or
higher guarantees an A, 80% or higher guarantees at least a B, 70% or higher
guarantees at least a C, 60% or higher guarantees at least a D. Besides these
lower limits, final letter grades may be based on a curved distribution.
Religious Holidays: Contact me at least one class period in advance if you
need to miss a class or exam in observance of a religious holiday. Arrangements
will be made for the missed work to be completed.
Students with
Disabilities: Any student in the
course who has a disabilities which prevents him or her from fully
demonstrating his or her ability should contact me personally as soon as
possible so we can discuss accommodations necessary to ensure full
participation and facilitate the educational opportunity.
Academic Misconduct: I do not expect academic misconduct to occur in this
class. But, regulations require that I inform you of the University Student
Handbook Definition and my expectations. The following two paragraphs are taken
from www.studenthandbook.ku.edu.
2.6.1 Academic misconduct by
a student shall include, but not be limited to, disruption of classes;
threatening an instructor or fellow student in an academic setting; giving or
receiving of unauthorized aid on examinations or in the preparation of
notebooks, themes, reports or other assignments; knowingly misrepresenting the
source of any academic work; unauthorized changing of grades; unauthorized use
of University approvals or forging of signatures; falsification of research
results; plagiarizing of another's work; violation of regulations or ethical
codes for the treatment of human and animal subjects; or otherwise acting
dishonestly in research.
2.6.2 After consultation with
the department chairperson, an instructor may, with due notice to the student,
treat as unsatisfactory (1) any student work that is a product of academic
misconduct, or (2) a student's performance for a course as unsatisfactory when
there are severe or repeated instances of academic misconduct as defined in
Section 2.6.1. If an instructor deems other sanctions for academic misconduct
by a student to be advisable, or if a student wishes to protest a grade based
upon work judged by an instructor to be a product of academic misconduct, or if
a faculty member is charged with academic misconduct in connection with the
assignment of a grade or otherwise, the case shall be reported to the Dean of
the College or School in which the course is offered and processed in accord
with applicable procedures.
For this class:
Academic misconduct will be
penalized by the assignment of a zero grade for the examination or assignment
involved. Any further instances will result in the failure of the student of
the course with a final grade of "F" being assigned. All cases of
academic misconduct will be reported to the Chair of the Chemical and Petroleum
Engineering Department and the Dean of the School of Engineering.
Unit 
Chapter 
Topic 
Class Periods 


1 
1 
Introduction to Chemical Engineering 
1 



2 
Engineering Calculations 
2 



3 
Processes and Process Variables 
3 














2 
4 
Fundamentals of Material Balances 
10 



5 
Single Phase Systems 
4 



6 
Multiphase Systems 
3 














3 
7 
Energy and Energy Balances 
5 



8 
Balances on Nonreactive Processes 
3 



911 
Balances on Reactive and Transient Processes 
7 














Important Dates 




Sept 7  No Classes Labor Day Holiday 




Oct 15  18  No Class Fall Break Nov 25  29  No Classes Thanksgiving Holiday 




Dec 11  No Classes Stop Day 




Dec 16  Final Exam 


Learning
Goals
Knowledge
Foundation
Students will become familiar
with engineering units.
Students
will:
Use
a diverse set of engineering units
Learn
to convert among these units
Students will learn to plot,
interpret and determine physical property data.
Student
will:
Be
introduced to molecular weight
Be
introduced to vapor pressure
Be
introduced to density
Be
introduced to enthalpy and internal energy
Be
introduced to heat of formation
Be
introduced to heat of combustion
Be
introduced to heat of reaction
Be
introduced to heat of mixing
Develop
xy graphs by hand including proper labeling
Develop
xy graphs by software
Determine
values for properties from physical property tables
Determine
values for properties from descriptive equations
Students will understand the
concept of control volume (system boundary).
Students
will:
Understand that a control volume is an aid to solving
complex problems.
Understand that a control volume is an engineering
artifice used to focus
Understand that it can be drawn around any subset of
an engineering process
Understand that the important terms are those that
cross the boundary and those inside the boundary
Students will understand the
language of flowsheets.
Students
will:
Learn
the semiindustrial standard symbology
Recognize
the likeness of the symbology to the actual equipment
Learn
the proper flowsheet organization
Learn
use of templates for proper communication
Material Balances
Students will learn
conservation of mass.
Students
will:
Learn the general material balance equation
Learn that the control volume sets the context of the
general material balance
Learn the significance of the accumulation term
Learn the significance of the input term
Learn the significance of the output term
Learn
the significance of the generation term
Learn
the significance of the consumption term
Formulate
reaction specifics as consumption or generation
Energy Balances
Students will learn
conservation of energy.
Student
will:
Learn the simplified first law focusing only on
internal energy, enthalpy, heat and work
Recognize that there is only one energy balance per
control volume
Learn the significance of the accumulation term
Learn the significance of input terms due to flow
Learn the significance of the output terms due to flow
Learn the significance of the input terms of heat and
work
Learn that for conventional chemical engineering
situations there are no generation or consumption terms
Learn the convention of heat and work
added to the control volume are positive.
Learn the alternative convention that work added to
the control volume is negative.
Learn that heat is energy flow due to a temperature
difference
Learn that enthalpy values are relative to a basis
Learn that internal energy values are relative to a
basis
Learn that there are enthalpy/internal energy changes
due to a phase change
Learn that there are enthalpy/internal energy changes
due to chemical reactions
Learn that there are enthalpy/internal energy changes
due to mixing
Learn that it is poor practice to consider reaction
and mixing terms to be 'heats', 'generation' and/or 'consumption
Skills
Students will develop good
organizational and documentation skills.
Students
will:
Organize their work to professional standards
Practice developing organized solutions with work
flowing sequentially down the page
Write all units and unit conversions on the solution
Include all units in the solution
Use engineering paper for all hand calculations
Use appropriate graph paper for all hand generated
plots
Label axes and figures
Document the evolving solution stating all
assumptions, units and nomenclature
Document all observations
Document all conclusions
Students will develop good
problem solving skills.
Students
will:
Recognize that problem solving involves
the six steps of engage, define, explore, plan, do and evaluate.
Recognize that these six steps are
iterative, not sequential.
Accept and practice this strategy
Recognize that this skill is required for
complex problems
Translate a problem statement or question
into a definition
Write the definition as part of the
problem solution
Estimate the solution form and values as
part of the definition
Identify what is known and what needs to
be known
Gather information to prepare the
foundation for the solution
Plan efficiently the solution strategy
prior to beginning
Will not begin the execution (do step)
until appropriate definition, exploration and planning have been completed.
Accept that the exploration and plan will
change
Evaluate the evolving solution
Evaluate their plan to ensure that effort
is only being placed on the defined problem.
Evaluate their solution in the context of
the definition
Students will develop
effective control volume usage.
Students
will:
Identify
all control volumes on a flowsheet
Select
effective control volumes based on the problem definition
Identify
all inputs due to material flow
Identify
all output due to material flow
Identify
all inputs due to heat
Identify
all inputs due to work
Students will develop
effective material balance solution methods
Students
will:
Draw
a flowsheet of every problem
Label
all equipment
Number
all streams
Identify
knowns
Identify
unknowns
Identify
specifications
Calculate
total number of equations required
Identify
and document all control volumes
Simplify
the general material balance equation for the problem
Write
material balance equations
Write
definition equations
Write
specification equations
Simplify
the problem, if necessary
Solve the problem for all unknowns
Document the significant results with respect to the
definition
Refrain from algebraically combining material balances
as part of the set up
Students will develop
effective energy balance solution methods.
Students
will:
Write
the energy balance for the identified control volumes
Select
an appropriate basis for enthalpy and internal energy
Select
heats of formation for an enthalpy basis where appropriate
Calculate
appropriate values for enthalpy and internal energy, as needed
Use
a consistent convention for heat
Use
a consistent convention for work
Students will develop the
ability to recognize and develop specifications
Students
will:
Identify the number of specifications required with
multiple streams leaving a control volume
Use mole fraction and mole percent specifications
Use weight fraction and weight percent specifications
Use vapor pressure and partial pressure of a single
condensable component to tie two streams
Use percentage recovery specifications
Students will use appropriate
computational tools.
Students
will:
Practice
estimation
Practice
using unprogrammed calculators
Practice
using selfdeveloped computer code
Practice
using sequential modular spreadsheet solution approaches
Practice
using equation oriented spreadsheet solution approaches
Be
introduced to process simulation solution approaches
Select the
appropriate tool for the problem definition